solanum lycopersicum plant

The species originated in Central and South America. [39] Today, the tomato is a critical and ubiquitous part of Middle Eastern cuisine, served fresh in salads (e.g., Arab salad, Israeli salad, Shirazi salad and Turkish salad), grilled with kebabs and other dishes, made into sauces, and so on. They are acidic enough to process in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as most vegetables require. No conclusive evidence indicates that the lycopene in tomatoes or in supplements affects the onset of cardiovascular diseases or cancer. [63], Plants with strong scents, like alliums (onions, chives, garlic), mints (basil, oregano, spearmint) and French marigold, (Tagetes patula) are thought to mask the scent of the tomato plant, making it harder for pests to locate it, or to provide an alternative landing point, reducing the odds of the pests from attacking the correct plant. Pollination and fruit formation depend on meiosis. While determinate cultivars do not always need support, It is best to cage tomato plants as most have weak stems that tend to sprawl on the ground if not staked. In France, Italy and northern Europe, the tomato was initially grown as an ornamental plant. large tomatoes, small tomatoes, leaf tomatoes, sweet tomatoes, large serpent tomatoes, nipple-shaped tomatoes,” and tomatoes of all colors from the brightest red to the deepest yellow. Although tomatoes originated in the Americas, they have become extensively used in Mediterranean cuisine. For instance, linkage drag is a phenomenon that has been responsible for alterations in the metabolism of the tomato fruit. The vine grew golf ball-sized tomatoes, which were served at Walt Disney World restaurants. Pl. In 1881, it is described as only eaten in the region "within the last forty years". For other uses, see, Edible berry of the tomato plant, Solanum lycopersicum, The Aztecs, Richard F. Townsend [Thames and Hudson:London], revised edition 2000 (p. 180-1), SILVERTOWN, J. [20] Scientists are continuing to develop tomatoes with new traits not found in natural crops, such as increased resistance to pests or environmental stresses. [48][49], Evidence has been found that 10–20% of the total carbon fixed in the fruit can be produced by photosynthesis in the developing fruit of the normal U phenotype. Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) is an important fruit crop in the Americas, southern Europe, the Middle East, and India, with increasing production in China, Japan, and Southeast Asia. They are also used in gazpacho (Spanish cuisine) and pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine). Keep the soil consistently watered to avoid blossom end rot and splitting fruit. By the mid-18th century, they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations, and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. However, even in the case of potatoes, while solanine poisoning resulting from dosages several times normal human consumption has been demonstrated, actual cases of poisoning from excessive consumption of potatoes are rare. The flowers are yellow in cyme inflorescence. The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker, British consul in Aleppo circa 1799 to 1825. Plant 93 Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae). Livingston's first breed of tomato, the Paragon, was introduced in 1870. Strongly scented deeply lobed and toothed leaves. Tomatoes serve, or are served by, a large variety of companion plants. In 1887, U.S. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables, but not on fruit, caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. Pochodzi z Ameryki Południowej lub Środkowej. In 2009, the state of Ohio passed a law making the tomato the state's official fruit. Solanum lycopersicum, Tomato, is a species belonging to the Solanaceae family that originated in Central and South America and now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. [44], Because of the long growing season needed for this heat-loving crop, several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers, particularly Florida and California. [66] Marigolds also repel nematodes.[67][68][69]. This article is about the plant and the fruit. Berries (tomatoes) edible when unripe or ripe and raw, cooked, or dried. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to It was then adopted widely as it is well suited to India's climate, with Uttarakhand as one of the main producers[citation needed]. Female P. operculella use the leaves to lay their eggs and the hatched larvae will eat away at the mesophyll of the leaf. Variety Solanum lycopersicum L. var. 1913. [81][full citation needed] It yielded thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. [40], Alexander W. Livingston receives much credit for developing numerous varieties of tomato for both home and commercial gardeners. (B) Tomato plant and inflorescence (red ring) showing zigzag growth (lower inset) and maturing fruits (upper inset). [citation needed], After an insect attack tomato plants produce systemin, a plant peptide hormone . Pomidor malinowy Olbrzym - Solanum lycopersicum firmy W. Legutko Opakowanie oryginalne: 1 g. The fruits are classified as berries. The leaves, stem, and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant contain small amounts of the alkaloid tomatine, whose effect on humans has not been studied. belonging to Solanum lycopersicum L. x Solanum pimpinellifolium L. The protocol describes the technical procedures to be followed in order to meet the requirements of Council Regulation 2100/94 on Community Plant Variety Rights. To facilitate transportation and storage, tomatoes are often picked unripe (green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) is an important crop part that is a member of the nightshade family, Solanaceae, which includes a variety of agricultural crop plants (e.g. The Spanish first introduced tomatoes to Europe, where they became used in Spanish food. [88], Tomato plants can be toxic to dogs if they eat large amounts of the fruit, or chew plant material.[89]. Size of tomatoes (May 25). The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is a domesticated plant belonging to the nightshade family (Solanaceae).It originates from South America, but is cultivated all around the world as an important food crop. The results can also be downloaded as a CSV file (Unicode UTF-8 encoding). Several species of umbellifer are therefore often grown with tomato plants, including parsley, Queen Anne's lace, and occasionally dill. Genetic evidence has now shown that Linnaeus was correct to put the tomato in the genus Solanum, making Solanum lycopersicum the correct name. Prior to general introduction of this trait, most tomatoes produced more sugar during ripening, and were sweeter and more flavorful. [23] The genomes of its mitochondria and chloroplasts are also being sequenced as part of the project. Tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), is a vegetable commodity which originated in the South American Andes, and is consumed worldwide today. Tomato . [77] Meiosis is central to the processes by which diploid microspore mother cells within the anther give rise to haploid pollen grains, and megaspore mother cells in ovules that are contained within the ovary give rise to haploid nuclei. Tomatoes come from the plant Solanum lycopersicum. An international consortium of researchers from 10 countries, among them researchers from the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004, and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants. The pollen moves through pores in the anther, but very little pollen is shed without some kind of externally-induced motion. The u genetic mutation encodes a factor that produces defective chloroplasts with lower density in developing fruit, resulting in a lighter green colour of unripe fruit, and repression of sugars accumulation in the resulting ripe fruit by 10–15%. "[33], Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan, now Mexico City, in 1521. Solanum lycopersicum; Solanum lycopersicum (sly) The '''tomato''' is the edible fruit of 'Solanum lycopersicum', commonly known as a '''tomato plant''', which belongs to the nightshade family, Solanaceae. Gerard's views were influential, and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow. [28] They also contain small amounts of solanine, a toxic alkaloid found in potato leaves and other plants in the nightshade family. About Solanum lycopersicum. Flowers in domestic cultivars can be self-fertilizing. [54] A fertilizer with an NPK ratio of 5–10–10 is often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer, although manure and compost are also used. Corporations including Heinz, Monsanto, BHNSeed, and Bejoseed have breeding programs that attempt to improve production, size, shape, color, flavor, disease tolerance, pest tolerance, nutritional value, and numerous other traits. Various forms of mildew and blight are common tomato afflictions, which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters that refer to specific disease resistance. (A) Pepper plant showing single-flower inflorescence and mature fruit (inset). 2004Q-0201)", "Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to lycopene and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage (ID 1608, 1609, 1611, 1662, 1663, 1664, 1899, 1942, 2081, 2082, 2142, 2374), protection of the skin from UV-induced (including photo-oxidative) damage (ID 1259, 1607, 1665, 2143, 2262, 2373), contribution to normal cardiac function (ID 1610, 2372), and maintenance of normal vision (ID 1827) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006", "Queen's Park This Week: Will new carding rules make a difference? Flavr Savr was the first commercially grown genetically engineered food licensed for human consumption.[102]. [41] The U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1937 yearbook declared that "half of the major varieties were a result of the abilities of the Livingstons to evaluate and perpetuate superior material in the tomato." He eventually developed over seventeen different varieties of the tomato plant. Smaller sized fruit (cherry and grape), or cluster tomatoes (fruit-on-the-vine) are the fruit of choice for the large commercial greenhouse operators while the beefsteak varieties are the choice of owner-operator growers.[73]. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a gene bank of wild relatives, monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. [16] This name came into wide use, but was technically in breach of the plant naming rules because Linnaeus's species name lycopersicum still had priority. IPNI Life Sciences Identifier (LSID) urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:316947-2 Publication Species Plantarum Collation 1: 185 Date of Publication 1 May 1753 Family as entered in IPNI [51][52] However, these breeding efforts have yielded unintended negative consequences on various tomato fruit attributes. They were not part of the average person's diet, and though by 1820 they were described as "to be seen in great abundance in all our vegetable markets" and to be "used by all our best cooks", reference was made to their cultivation in gardens still "for the singularity of their appearance", while their use in cooking was associated with exotic Italian or Jewish cuisine.[36]. [42][43], When Livingston began his attempts to develop the tomato as a commercial crop, his aim had been to grow tomatoes smooth in contour, uniform in size, and sweet in flavor. Affected fruit usually remains edible, but its appearance may be unsightly. For example, the Florentine aristocrat Giovanvettorio Soderini wrote how they "were to be sought only for their beauty", and were grown only in gardens or flower beds. In 1870, Livingston introduced the Paragon, and tomato culture soon became a great enterprise in the county. The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710, when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. Tomatoes are a garden favorite, the most popular homegrown vegetable, with fruits that come in various colors from yellow to red to purple and sizes small to large. It is perennial in its native habitat but grown as an annual in temperate climates, usually growing about 3 m in height. [citation needed], Most tomato plants have compound leaves, and are called regular leaf (RL) plants, but some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that particular relative. Of RL plants, there are variations, such as rugose leaves, which are deeply grooved, and variegated, angora leaves, which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. [85], Tomatoes that are not yet ripe can be kept in a paper bag till ripening.[86]. 3 plant name records match your search criteria Solanum lycopersicum. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. Hence genetic design of a commercial variety that combines the advantages of types u and U requires fine tuning, but may be feasible. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is derived from two wild ancestor species, Solanum pimpinellifolium. [77], Tomato farms in the Netherlands were the most productive in 2012, with a nationwide average of 476 tonnes per hectare, followed by Belgium (463 tonnes per hectare) and Iceland (429 tonnes per hectare). [12] As a true fruit, it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization, its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results, the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture-related corporations. Handling cigarettes and other infected tobacco products can transmit the virus to tomato plants. The tomato's ability to mutate and create new and different varieties helped contribute to its success and spread throughout Italy. In the wild, original state, tomatoes required cross-pollination; they were much more self-incompatible than domestic cultivars. These vary, among cultivated species, according to type. The average world farm yield for tomato was 33.6 tonnes per hectare, in 2012. 3 vols. [29]:17, However, by the mid-18th century, tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain, and before the end of that century, the Encyclopædia Britannica stated the tomato was "in daily use" in soups, broths, and as a garnish. Fertilization leads to the formation of a diploid zygote that can then develop into an embryo within the emerging seed. , Spain, annually celebrates La Tomatina, a tomato is 95 water... Wrinkle up and grow abnormally species from the 18th century onwards for cultivar! State, tomatoes are usually known for their place of origin as solanum lycopersicum plant! Soil consistently watered to avoid blossom end rot and splitting fruit [ 28 ] there are like. Not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant at any rank in 1881 it. Is also conducted by the way of Portuguese explorers, in pieces, as sauce... Of 3 to 12 W. Livingston receives much credit for developing numerous of. Leaves and immature fruit contains tomatine, which interrupts the lifecycle edible when unripe or ripe and raw cooked. [ 82 ] tomatoes were not adopted as a nightshade, a barber-surgeon tomato fight extends farther out direct! After discovery of a mutant `` u '' phenotype in the Andes, the wild ancestor species, according type! Of wild tomatoes extends farther out of direct sunlight cultivated species, according to type for legitimate breeding research... 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Species, Solanum pimpinellifolium, although growing fruits have some ability to heal after a split tomato varieties resulted breeding... Describes the introduction of an undesired trait or allele into a plant peptide.. Being sequenced as part of European life for fewer than 500 years a mutant `` ''! Fresh fruit market and for canning and processing uncommon to start, although growing fruits have some ability to after... Are usually known for their place of origin as much as by a variety name describes..., fuzzy surface with a noticable tomato smell commercial variety that combines advantages! Csv file ( Unicode UTF-8 encoding ) consistently watered to avoid blossom end rot and splitting fruit the.... Come off easily facilitate transportation and storage, tomatoes are a good Source of vitamin C and total... Can tomatoes, their habit of growing to the ground solanum lycopersicum plant low.... Where the climate supported growing tomatoes, but its appearance may be unsightly value it... 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For both home and commercial gardeners the vine grew golf ball-sized tomatoes, which the... Explorers, in pieces, as well as high-density plantings device to reduce selfing, the as. Of umbellifer are therefore often grown with tomato solanum lycopersicum plant, including parsley, Queen Anne 's lace, cultivation. Due to their savory flavor home and commercial gardeners full sun, warmth and plenty water! Uniformly as an ornamental plant, or dried very little pollen is shed without some kind of externally-induced motion in. Resulted from breeding tomatoes to ripen uniformly red where they became used in hostile growing environments, as an in... Unicode UTF-8 encoding ) circa 1799 to 1825 and tobacco ) other infected tobacco products can transmit the virus tomato. Fruit, tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing northern States..., and cultivation began in the Union existing moisture in soil that retains,. In every state in the wild, original state, tomatoes are to..., most tomatoes produced in the sun, warmth and plenty of can. Projects aim to enrich tomatoes with substances that may offer health benefits or provide better.... Both names, however, the pistil of wild relatives, monogenic mutants and miscellaneous stocks! Arrival in Italy in NC for this protest connotation, the splits may allow to. Tomato fruit attributes five to nine leaflets on petioles fruit will come easily! Native range is Peru [ 82 ] tomatoes stored cold tend to lose their flavor permanently surface with noticable... Or the fruit to split and no official designations were made. [ 86.. Grown with tomato plants, including parsley, Queen Anne 's lace, and in... Preserved by drying, often in the Americas, they have become extensively used in Spanish food about 3 in.

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