1957 mudukulathur riots

Move smoothly between articles as our pages load instantly. Muthuramalinga Thevar’s followers believed that Kamaraj had betrayed their leader since they believed it was he who helped Kamaraj enter Madras provincial politics in the 1930s and launch his political career. He did significant work among Dalit victims of the brutal police action at Kodiyankulam in Tuticorin district in 1995 (Frontline, October 20, 1995). Murder in Mudukulathur is the first extended study of this watershed moment. His observation that “conflict in any society is often an outcome of political, social and economical change” sets the tone and tenor of his work. Panikkar, convened a peace meeting at Mudukulathur on September 10, 1957, which was attended by Muthuramalinga Thevar and his men, Perumal Peter and Immanuel Sekaran, and Veluchamy Nadar, a representative of the Nadar caste. Subscribe to The Frontline now and get unlimited access. Though there has been a rivalry between Devendirars and Thevars since Mudukulathur riots, it cannot be reduced simply to a caste feud; rather this is rooted in the dialectics of the What happened in Ramanatha-puram is neither a caste clash nor a communal clash that originated locally. In fact, he says, "I continue to be a Marxist." Sasivarna Thevar of the Forward Bloc. The election was won by T.V. In an interview to S. Viswanathan he discussed Dalit-related issues and explains his party's political agenda. The Mudukulathur Assembly byelection, necessitated by Muthuramalinga Thevar’s resignation after he retained the Srivilliputhur Lok Sabha seat, was won by his supporter T.L. The resources needed to keep up the good work that Frontline has been doing for the past 35 years and more are immense. N. Ram, Chairman, THG Publishing Private Limited, who spoke on the occasion, said: “The author should be praised for providing a critical historical account of what happened in 1957 and for treading a difficult ground as it could lead to a reaction.” The author has anchored his arguments in archived records, quoting extensively from various sources, especially the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly’s debates and notes on the failed no-confidence motion moved against the then Congress government, to explain the politics behind the clashes. It is a long journey indeed. The Pallars recollect the riots as the first bold sign of resistance against the caste-based slavery they had languished under for centuries. In the recent incidents in Ramanathapuram, apart from Dalits, Muslims were also targeted. Such clashes are not new—dating back to the Mudukulathur riots of 1957 at least17—but the violence of the 1990s was a direct response to Dalit assertion and attempts to escape dependence. Thevar dominance was such that they were a “law unto themselves” in the region. The election was won by T.V. A by-election was held in the Mudukulathur assembly constituency on 1 July 1957, as Thevar had resigned from his assembly seat. The situation in the area was tense on the day that the results were released, and there was a sizeable presence of police forces in place. In 1957, during the run-up to state assembly by-elections in Tamil Nadu, violence broke out in Mudukulathur—a southeastern town in the state—between the Thevars, the regionally dominant caste, and the Devendrakula Vellalars, a Dalit community. We have a good rapport with Muslims. No.45 (MS), Public (General-A), (Confidential), Department, 11, September 1958: “[Muthuramalinga] Thevar abused Immanuel Sekaran as a man of straw and questioned his audacity to sit with him on equal terms as a leader.” Muthuramalinga Thevar left the meeting after chiding his followers for allowing “Immanuel to talk back to him”; the developments eventually culminated in his murder. The print medium all over the world is no exception. After the 1957 general elections, it became more or less a case of personal enmity between Muthuramalinga Thevar and Kamaraj, which percolated down to the party cadre and to members of the caste. Immanuvel devendrar was born on 9th october 1924 to Mr.Vedhanayagam (School Teacher and founder of Devendra kula vellalar sangam,Mudukulathur) and Mrs.Gnanasoundhari Ammal in a village of Sellur, which is located in Mudukulathur Taluk in Ramanathapuram district,Tamil Nadu . Sasivarna Thevar of the Forward Bloc. Ukkirapandi Muthuramalingam Thevar (30 October 1908 – 30 October 1963), also known as Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar, was an Indian political leader. Memories of the Mudukulathur riots have been moulded to perpetuate and intensify caste conflict in the region ever since. Today, there is a memorial for Immanuel Sekaran in Paramkodi in southern Tamil Nadu. Rajagopal: ‘The minimum courtesy should be to consult people whose lives are affected’. The election was won by D. V. Sasivarna Thevar of the Forward Bloc. Manikumar explains how Kamaraj initiated countermeasures that steadily eroded the Thevar support base. How would you explain this phenomenon of caste-related incidents getting a communal orientation? He argues that the differences between the two political parties, the All India Forward Bloc, led by Muthuramalinga Thevar, and the Congress, led by Kamaraj, were the main source of the hatred between the Thevars and the Pallars and between the Nadars and the Thevars. He makes a sincere attempt to set the record straight, plug the gaps in the narratives, and present the raw documented facts, which many historians failed to do for reasons best known to them. Since the Mudukulathur riots and the murder of the Dalit leader Immanuel Sekaran (September 11, 1957) at Paramakudi town in Ramanathapuram district and the gory incident in Keezhvenmani in Thanjavur district in which 44 Dalit agricultural workers were burnt to death (December 25, 1968), Dalits have been asserting themselves against feudalistic forces. The situation in the area was tense on the day that the results were released, and there was a sizeable presence of police forces in place. In Tamil Nadu too, at the top of the pyramid of the caste system are Brahmins. The Mudukulathur riots and Dalits like Immanuel Sekaran did not figure even in the Dravidian discourse or Non-Brahmin Movement as a problematique. Drawing on a vast amount of primary sources, the author narrates the sequence of events leading to the caste conflagration of 1957, and its political and social fallout. Manikumar’s Murder in Mudukulathur: Caste and Electoral Politics in Tamil Nadu (2017) helps set the record straight. The Ramanathapuram Collector, C.V.R. Murder in Mudukulathur is the first extended study of this watershed moment. Manikumar says that his arrest “caused no major law and order problem” and adds that “by the second week of October, the violence has abated”. Sasivarna Thevar of the Forward Bloc. Today, there is a memorial for Immanuel Sekaran in Paramkodi in southern Tamil Nadu. The hatred for each other during the last two months resulted in a number of clashes between these two parties and was responsible for creating tension in this taluk.”, An analysis of the pattern of the conflagrations in the book indicates that the murder of Immanuel Sekaran “did not evoke any organised protest from the Dalit community [immediately]” since the caste violence “had been fierce with battles involving Thevars on one side and Pallars and Nadars on the other”. In 1957, there was not much awakening. Though there has been a rivalry between Devendirars and Thevars since Mudukulathur riots, it cannot be reduced simply to a caste feud; rather this is rooted in the dialectics of the The first two general elections (in 1952 and 1957), he writes, witnessed a gradual shift in the people’s political preference. Many have written well-researched volumes on the riots and its repercussions, both in Tamil and English. ... group of thevars on 11 september 1957. The political developments had a direct bearing on the clashes involving Pallars and Thevars on the one hand and Nadars and Thevars on the other in East Ramanathapuram. The material sourced by the author, including the peace document, has helped him substantiate his claim that there was more to the riots than meets the eye. The print medium all over the world is no exception. A well-researched chronicle of one of the worst caste riots Tamil Nadu has seen, the book talks about the politics behind the incidents and their long-term implications. Their assertions took the shape of a movement after educated leaders started emerging from within. Owing to violence in the after math of the 1957 Mudukulathur bye-election, the district collector convened a peace meeting where all caste leaders, including the powerful Muthuramalinga Thevar of Forward Bloc, were invited. Casteist aggressors and Hindutva forces saw the Ramanathapuram conference as a warning signal in that respect. Memories of the Mudukulathur riots have been moulded to perpetuate and intensify caste conflict in the region ever since. We organised a big conference in Ramanathapuram recently. Ramnad riots A by-election was held in the Mudukulathur assembly constituency on July 1, 1957, as Thevar had resigned from his assembly seat. This incident triggered a political and social churning that continues to influence politics in Tamil Nadu. Immediately clashes between Maravars, who largely supported the Forward Bloc, and pro-Congress Dalits began in a few villages soon after the election result was acknowledged. The election was won by D.V. Later, the C.N.Annadurai-led DMK government released all those arrested in connection with the 1957 riots. Sasivarna Thevar won the by-election for the Mudukulathur assembly constituency vacated by Muthuramalinga Thevar, in July1957, the pro-Congress dalits clashed with pro-AIFB Thevars, and the clashes spread throughout the constituency. Between the Mudukulathur riots of 1957 and the caste-related violence in recent years, do you see any significant change in the Dalit response? Ramnad riots. On the basis of the Venkateshwaran commission’s report, the government arrested Muthuramalinga Thevar under the Preventive Detention Act on September 28, 1957. In his concluding chapter, the author says that there was no immediate reaction to the murder as “it would take time to germinate”. Now most Dalits have come out of the clutches of those political parties. It made them aware of their socially and constitutionally guaranteed rights to dignity and livelihood, and they began asserting themselves. He writes: “Violence was the coin of this political commerce. They first mobilised under the leadership of Perumal Peter and then Immanuel Sekaran and his Depressed Class Youth League, besides getting “identified politically with the ruling Congress party”. His determination won the appreciation of those who had been disillusioned with the disruptive politics of Thevar.” At the same time, he takes pains to refute the allegation that Kamaraj instigated the Pallars against the Thevars in order to safeguard the Nadar community. You have reached your limit for free articles this month. Sasivarna Thevar of the Forward Bloc. Today, there is a memorial for Immanuel Sekaran in Paramkodi in southern Tamil Nadu. The Mudukulathur region in the same district, which in 1957 had seen a fortnight-long violence, is free of tension so far. MUDUKULATHUR RIOT(1957): A by-election was held in the Mudukulathur assembly constituency on July 1, 1957, as Thevar had resigned from his assembly seat. There should first be emancipation of Dalits. In-depth analysis of issues and events in India and around the world. At the bottom are Dalits. Two kinds of violence were on display in Ramanathapuram—the violence of the dominant class and the violence of the oppressed.” He says that the former’s was to subjugate the oppressed while the latter’s was to uphold the dignity of life. IT is quite paradoxical that a socially progressive State such as Tamil Nadu should have a long and despicable track record of discriminatory practices against Dalits. He has been vocal and fairly consistent in his ideologies That being said, let's see this case “rationally” and why leaders like Thol. Enjoy reading as many articles as you wish without any limitations. on 11 September 1957.2 Immanuel's death resulted in the Mudukulathur riots, a clash between the Devendirars and Thevars that lasted for a few weeks. Subscribing to the online edition, I am confident, will make it mutually beneficial. The Kallars, Maravars and Agamudaiyars, who call themselves Thevars, are the traditionally denotified tribes, and their concentration is heavy in the southern districts. Murder in Mudukulathur is the first extended study of this watershed moment. https://mayday.leftword.com/blog/post/murder-in-mudukulathur He later joined the Indian National Congress. The situation in the area was tense on the day that the results were released, and there was a sizeable presence of police forces in place. An upsurge could be seen among the Pallars in the 1940s and the 1950s. Owing to violence in the after math of the 1957 Mudukulathur bye-election, the district collector convened a peace meeting where all caste leaders, ... he was killed leading to days of caste violence across the district. Hindutva forces think they can break the unity between Dalits and Muslims by attacking Muslim property. [2] the anniversary of devendrar's death is celebrated annually as devendrar jayanti by … They were under the influence and leadership of political parties run by others (other castes). Dalits' problems can be solved by none other than Dalits. (Muthuramalinga Thevar left the Justice Party in protest against its failure to repeal the Criminal Tribes Act, 1871, implemented by the British against the Mukkulathors, and joined the Congress in 1937, only to leave it in 1949 when it too failed him.). The episode of violence at a Wistron iPhone assembling facility near Bengaluru was not the ploy of a set of rogue managers but is in tune with the nature of global value chains, where companies engage in exploitative practices to be profitable. In 1996, he was elected to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly from the Ottapidaram (Reserved) constituency in Tuticorin district. ... Later, the C.N.Annadurai-led DMK government released all those arrested in connection with the 1957 riots. “Between July 1995 and June 1996, clashes between Thevars and Pallars resulted in large-scale destruction of property, loss of life on both sides” (Human Rights Watch 1999:84). Earlier in his political career, Krishnasamy was influenced by Marxism. The author also refers to the editorial in The Hindu of October 12, 1957: “It seems that the recent troubles are not solely of communal origin and that political differences dating from the first general elections and intensified by the recent byelection in Mudukulathur have been also responsible.” The Hindu, in fact, had demanded a judicial inquiry into the riots. Readers who have been part of this journey are our source of strength. It is also true that in this surcharged environment, genuine and objective works of a few writers and historians have been distorted and sometimes even dismissed as being “casteist”. However, he adds that “[Muthuramalinga] Thevar’s actions after Independence wiped clean his nationalist legacy”. Readers who have been part of this journey are our source of strength. The Thevars remember the riots as “state violence,” unleashed by the then Congress government led by K. Kamaraj, to destroy the esteem their leader, Muthuramalinga Thevar, enjoyed among the members of his caste and the caste’s dominance in the region. A person belonging to an economically weaker section and a backward caste should first consider as his equal a Dalit who is similarly poor. The election was won by D. V. Sasivarna Thevar of the Forward Bloc. We should remember that he distributed his lands to … Can it be separated from class struggle? Only unity among equals will be effective and lasting. Although the party did not win a single seat, its performance was impressive in a few constituencies. Dalits were then completely unorganised, uneducated. I believe in class struggle but Marxism is not class struggle alone. Murder in Mudukulathur is the first extended study of this watershed moment. ... and special precautionary measures were put into operation in Mudukulathur taluk. It is a long journey indeed. There are thousands of castes in the country. 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